Russian Criminal Tattoo Encyclopaedia Volume II
About the book
The second volume of the Russian Criminal Tattoo Encyclopaedia contains completely new drawings, text and photographs from Danzig Baldaev and Sergei Vasiliev. During his fifty years working as a prison guard in St Petersburg's notorious Kresty Prison, Baldaev diligently recorded over 3,000 criminal tattoos, documenting their meanings within this closed society. This volume further explores the extremes of this incredible collection. Published 3rd July 2006, reprinted in 2011.
This second volume contains completely new drawings, text and photographs.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as thermal energy or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy, such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission and nuclear fusion). The heat energy released by reactions of fuels can be converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine. Other times, the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that accompanies combustion. Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration, where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy. Hydrocarbons and related organic molecules are by far the most common source of fuel used by humans, but other substances, including radioactive metals, are also utilized. Fuels are contrasted with other substances or devices storing potential energy, such as those that directly release electrical energy (such as batteries and capacitors) or mechanical energy (such as flywheels, springs, compressed air, or water in a reservoir).
HistoryThe first known use of fuel was the combustion of wood or sticks by Homo erectus nearly two million years ago. Throughout most of human history only fuels derived from plants or animal fat were used by humans. Charcoal, a wood derivative, has been used since at least 6,000 BCE for melting metals. It was only supplanted by coke, derived from coal, as European forests started to become depleted around the 18th century. Charcoal briquettes are now commonly used as a fuel for barbecue cooking.Crude oil was distilled by Persian chemists, with clear descriptions given in Arabic handbooks such as those of Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi. He described the process of distilling crude oil/petroleum into kerosene, as well as other hydrocarbon compounds, in his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets). Kerosene was also produced during the same period from oil shale and bitumen by heating the rock to extract the oil, which was then distilled. Rāzi also gave the first description of a kerosene lamp using crude mineral oil, referring to it as the "naffatah".The streets of Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from petroleum that became accessible from natural fields in the region. In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in the area around modern Baku, Azerbaijan. These fields were described by the Arab geographer Abu al-Hasan 'Alī al-Mas'ūdī in the 10th century, and by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads.With the energy in the form of chemical energy that could be released through combustion, but the concept development of the steam engine in the United Kingdom in 1769, coal came into more common use as a power source. Coal was later used to drive ships and locomotives. By the 19th century, gas extracted from ... Read full biography
|Languages:||| English ||
|Illustrations:||Illustrated in black and white throughout|
|Publication date:||June 20, 2013|
|First Publication Date:||None|
|Publication City/Country:||London, United Kingdom|